School of Earth and Environment

Caroline Peacock Dr Caroline Peacock

Associate Professor of Biogeochemistry

Telephone number: +44(0) 113 34 37877
Email address:
Room: 9.148

Link to personal page


The overarching goal of my research is to better understand how molecular interactions control the reactivity and cycling of trace-elements in the terrestrial and marine environments. My work focuses on the mineral-microbe-water interface and the micro-scale processes that control soil and sediment geochemistry and the composition of natural waters. These processes play key roles in the global biogeochemical cycling of micro-nutrients and the retardation of contaminants in the subsurface, both now and in the past.

Current research areas include determining the reactivity of abiotic and biotic minerals towards trace-metals, including Ni, Cu and Cr, and macro-nutrients, including P and C; investigating biogeochemical controls on freshwater and marine chemistry, including trace-metal concentrations and stable isotope compositions; and applying mineral-water interface research to the understanding and development of novel proxies for palaeo ocean redox and biogeochemical processes.

My group combine novel experimental sorption and stable isotope fractionation studies with synchrotron-based X-ray spectroscopy, quantum mechanical modelling and aqueous geochemical modelling.


  • BSc(Hons) Environmental Geoscience, University of Bristol
  • PhD Geochemistry, University of Bristol


  • Member of The Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland (MinSoc)
  • Chair Environmental Mineralogy Group, special interest group of the MinSoc
  • Member of The Geochemical Society
  • Fellow of The Higher Education Academy

Research Interests

  • Mineral-water interfaces and interfacial processes
  • Biogeochemical cycling of trace-metals and both macro- and micro-nutrients
  • Trace-metal signatures in terrestrial and marine sedimentary archives


  • Burke IT; Mosselmans JFW; Shaw S; Peacock CL; Benning LG; Coker VS (2015) Impact of the diamond light source on research in earth and environmental sciences: Current work and future perspectives, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 373, . doi: 10.1098/rsta.2013.0151
  • Fuller AJ; Shaw S; Ward MB; Haigh SJ; Mosselmans JFW; Peacock CL; Stackhouse S; Dent AJ; Trivedi D; Burke IT (2015) Caesium incorporation and retention in illite interlayers, Applied Clay Science, . doi: 10.1016/j.clay.2015.02.008
  • Mayanna S; Peacock CL; Schäffner F; Grawunder A; Merten D; Kothe E; Büchel G (2015) Biogenic precipitation of manganese oxides and enrichment of heavy metals at acidic soil pH, Chemical Geology, 402, pp.6-17. doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2015.02.029
  • Robbins LJ; Swanner ED; Lalonde SV; Eickhoff M; Paranich ML; Reinhard CT; Peacock CL; Kappler A; Konhauser KO (2015) Limited Zn and Ni mobility during simulated iron formation diagenesis, Chemical Geology, 402, pp.30-39. doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2015.02.037
  • Fuller AJ; Shaw S; Peacock CL; Trivedi D; Small JS; Abrahamsen LG; Burke IT (2014) Ionic strength and pH dependent multi-site sorption of 137Cs onto a micaceous aquifer sediment., Applied Geochemistry, 40, pp.32-42. doi: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2013.10.017
  • Husdon-Edwards KA; Bristow CS; Cibin G; Mason G; Peacock CL (2014) Solid-phase phosphorus speciation in Saharan Bodele Depression dusts and source sediments., Chemical Geology, 384, pp.16-26. doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2014.06.014
  • Matamoros-Veloza A; Peacock CL; Benning LG (2014) Selenium speciation in framboidal and euhedral pyrites in shales., Environmental Science and Technology, . doi: 10.1021/es405686q
  • Atkins AL; Shaw S; Peacock CL (2014) Nucleation and growth of todorokite from birnessite: Implications for trace-metal cycling in marine sediments, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 144, pp.109-125. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2014.08.014
  • Lockwood CL; Mortimer RJG; Stewart DI; Mayes WM; Peacock CL; Polya DA; Lythgoe PR; Lehoux AP; Gruiz K; Burke IT (2014) Mobilisation of arsenic from bauxite residue (red mud) affected soils: Effect of pH and redox conditions, Applied Geochemistry, 51, pp.268-277. doi: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2014.10.009
  • Rabizadeh T; Peacock CL; Benning LG (2014) Carboxylic acids: Effective inhibitors for calcium sulfate precipitation, Mineralogical Magazine, 78, pp.1465-1472. doi: 10.1180/minmag.2014.078.6.13
  • Meier DB; Gunnlaugsson E; Gunnarsson I; Jamtveit B; Peacock CL; Benning LG (2014) Microstructural and chemical variation in silica-rich precipitates at the Hellisheioi geothermal power plant, Mineralogical Magazine, 78, pp.1381-1389. doi: 10.1180/minmag.2014.078.6.04
  • Moon EM; Peacock CL (2013) Modelling Cu(II) adsorption to ferrihydrite and ferrihydrite-bacteria composites: Deviation from additive adsorption in the composite sorption system, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 104, pp.148-164. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2012.11.030
  • Nielsen SG; Wasylenki LW; Rehkamper M; Peacock CL; Xue Z; Moon EM (2013) Towards an understanding of thallium isotope fractionation during adsorption to manganese oxides, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 117, pp.252-265. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2013.05.004
  • Burke IT; Peacock CL; Lockwood CL; Stewart D; Mortimer R; Ward MB; Renforth P; Gruiz K; Mayes WM (2013) Behavior of aluminium, arsenic and vanadium during the neutralization of red mud leachate by HCl, gypsum or seawater., Environmental Science and Technology, 47, pp.6527-6535. doi: 10.1021/es4010834
  • Peacock CL; Moon EM (2012) Oxidative scavenging of thallium by birnessite: Explanation for thallium enrichment and stable isotope fractionation in marine ferromanganese precipitates, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 84, pp.297-313. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2012.01.036
  • Burke IT; Mayes WM; Peacock CL; Brown AP; Jarvis AP; Gruiz K (2012) Speciation of arsenic, chromium and vanadium in red mud samples from the Ajka spill site, Hungary, Environmental Science and Technology, 46, pp.3085-3092. doi: 10.1021/es3003475
  • Moon EM; Peacock CL (2012) Adsorption of Cu(II) to ferrihydrite and ferrihydrite-bacteria composites: Importance of the carboxyl group for Cu mobility in natural environments, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 92, pp.203-219. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2012.06.012
  • Moon EM; Peacock CL (2011) Adsorption of Cu(II) to Bacillus subtilis: A pH-dependent EXAFS and thermodynamic modelling study, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75, pp.6705-6719. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2011.08.004
  • Sherman DM; Peacock CL (2010) Surface complexation of Cu on birnessite (δ-MnO2): Controls on Cu in the deep ocean, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 74, pp.6721-6730. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2010.08.042
  • Peacock CL (2009) Physiochemical controls on the crystal-chemistry of Ni in birnessite: Genetic implications for ferromanganese precipitates, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, 73, pp.3568-3578. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2009.03.020
  • Sherman DM; Peacock CL; Hubbard CG (2008) Surface complexation of U(VI) on goethite (alpha-FeOOH), GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, 72, pp.298-310. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2007.10.023
  • Sherman D; Hubbard C; Peacock C (2008) Surface complexation of U(VI) by Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides, In: Merkel; B J; Hasche-Berger A (Ed) Uranium, Mining and Hydrogeology, Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-87746-2
  • Peacock CL; Sherman DM (2007) Crystal-chemistry of Ni in marine ferromanganese crusts and nodules, AM MINERAL, 92, pp.1087-1092. doi: 10.2138/am.2007.2378
  • Peacock CL; Sherman DM (2007) Sorption of Ni by birnessite: Equilibrium controls on Ni in seawater, CHEM GEOL, 238, pp.94-106. doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2006.10.019
  • Peacock CL; Sherman DM (2005) Copper(II) sorption onto goethite, hematite, and lepidocrocite: A surface complexation model based on ab initio molecular geometries and EXAFS spectroscopy (vol 68, pg 2623, 2004), GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, 69, pp.5141-5142. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2005.02.020
  • Peacock CL; Sherman DM (2005) Erratum: "Copper(II) sorption onto goethite, hematite, and lepidocrocite: A surface complexation model based on ab initio molecular geometries and EXAFS spectroscopy" (Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (2004) vol. 68 (2623-2637)), Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 69, pp.5141-5142. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2005.02.020
  • Peacock CL; Sherman DM (2005) Surface complexation model for multisite adsorption of copper(II) onto kaolinite, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, 69, pp.3733-3745. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2004.12.029
  • Peacock CL; Sherman DM (2004) Copper(II) sorption onto goethite, hematite and lepidocrocite: A surface complexation model based on ab initio molecular geometries and EXAFS spectroscopy, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, 68, pp.2623-2637. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2003.11.030
  • Peacock CL; Sherman DM (2004) Vanadium(V) adsorption onto goethite (alpha-FeOOH) at pH 1.5 to 12: A surface complexation model based on ab initio molecular geometries and EXAFS spectroscopy, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, 68, pp.1723-1733. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2003.10.018
  • Peacock CL; Sherman DM (2002) Vanadium (III, IV and V) sorption onto goethite alpha-FeOOH, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, 66, pp.A583-A583.