School of Earth and Environment

Dr Catherine (Frin) Bale

University Research Fellow (CPE & SEE)

Telephone number: +44(0) 113 34 38250
Email address:
Room: 10.112

Affiliation: Sustainability Research Institute


I hold an EPSRC Post-Doctoral Fellowship, with joint appointment across the faculties of Engineering (Energy Research Institute) and Environment (Sustainability Research Institute); and am a member of the Centre for Integrated Energy Research.

Previously I was a research fellow on the City Energy Futures project; an interdisciplinary project bringing together mathematicians, computer simulation scientists, engineers and social scientists to investigate the use of complexity modelling in city-level energy decision-making.

Before joining the university in 2010, I worked in the public sector, developing strategic programmes to support the energy and environmental sectors.

My degree and PhD are in the physical sciences.


2005 - DPhil in Atmospheric Chemisty (University of Oxford)

2001 - MChem (University of Oxford)

Research Interests

My research interests are centred on:

  • The application of complexity science modelling methods to energy challenges at the technology-policy interface.
  • The delivery of national energy policy at the local level and the role of local authorities in city-level energy decision-making.

Current projects:

I currently hold an EPSRC post-doctoral fellowship and am undertaking a three year project entitled 'Reducing heat demand in UK cities: Using complexity science to enable effective decision-making' (EP/K022288/1).

In addition I am PI on a project awarded from the Chesshire-Lehmann Fund entitled 'Spatial mapping tools for district heating: helping local authorities tackle fuel poverty'.

I am also a researcher in the iBUILD consortium which is funded by EPSRC and ESRC and aims to develop new business models to improve the delivery of infrastructure systems and the services they provide.


Journal Publications

McCullen NJ; Rucklidge AM; Bale CSE; Foxon TJ; Gale WF Multiparameter Models of Innovation Diffusion on Complex Networks. SIAM Journal on Applied Dynamical Systems, vol. 12, pp.515-532. 2013. LINK DOI
Bale CSE; Gale WF; McCullen NJ; Rucklidge AM; Foxon TJ Harnessing social networks for promoting adoption of energy technologies in the domestic sector. Energy Policy, vol. 63, pp.833-844. 2013. DOI
Martin CJ; Taylor PG; Upham P; Ghiasi G; Bale CSE; Gale WF; Owen A; James H; Slack RJ; Helmer S Energy in low carbon cities and social learning: A process for defining priority research questions with UK stakeholders. Sustainable Cities and Society, 2013. DOI
Bale CSE; Foxon TJ; Hannon MJ; Gale WF Strategic Energy Planning within Local Authorities in the UK: a Study of the City of Leeds. Energy Policy, vol. 48, pp.242-251. 2012. DOI
Commane R; Seitz K; Bale CSE; Bloss WJ; Buxmann J; Ingham T; Platt U; Pohler D; Heard DE Iodine monoxide at a clean marine coastal site: observations of high frequency variations and inhomogeneous distributions. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 11, pp.6721-6733. 2011. DOI
McFiggans G; Bale CSE; Ball SM; Beames JM; Bloss WJ; Carpenter LJ; Dorsey J; Dunk R; Flynn MJ; Furneaux KL; Gallagher MW; Heard DE; Hollingsworth AM; Hornsby K; Ingham T; Jones CE; Jones RL; Kramer LJ; Langridge JM; Leblanc C; LeCrane JP; Lee JD; Leigh RJ; Longley I; Mahajan AS; Monks PS; Oetjen H; Orr-Ewing AJ; Plane JMC; Potin P; Shillings AJL; Thomas F; von Glasow R; Wada R; Whalley LK; Whitehead JD Iodine-mediated coastal particle formation: an overview of the Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe) Roscoff coastal study. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 10, pp.2975-2999. 2010.
Bale CSE; Ingham T; Commane R; Heard DE; Bloss WJ Novel measurements of atmospheric iodine species by resonance fluorescence. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, vol. 60, pp.51-70. 2008. DOI
Whalley LK; Furneaux KL; Gravestock T; Atkinson HM; Bale C; Ingham T; Bloss WJ; Heard DE Detection of iodine monoxide radicals in the marine broundary layer using laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, vol. 58, pp.19-39. 2007.
Bale CS; Canosa-Mas CE; Shallcross DE; Wayne RP A discharge-flow study of the kinetics of the reactions of IO with CH3O2 and CF3O2. Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics: a journal of European Chemical Societies, vol. 7, pp.2164-2172. 2005. LINK
Kasyutich VL; Bale CSE; Canosa-Mas CE; Pfrang C; Vaughan S; Wayne RP Cavity-enhanced absorption: detection of nitrogen dioxide and iodine monoxide using a violet laser diode. Applied Physics B - Lasers and Optics, vol. 76, pp.691-697. 2003. DOI
Bale CSE; Canosa-Mas CE; Flugge ML; Wayne RP An experimental study of the gas-phase reaction of the NO3 radical with 1,4-pentadiene, Z-1,3-pentadiene and E-1,3-pentadiene. Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics: a journal of European Chemical Societies, vol. 4, pp.5821-5826. 2002. DOI

Conference Proceedings

Bale C; McCullen N; Foxon T; Rucklidge A; Gale WF Local authority interventions in the domestic sector and the role of social networks : a case study from the city of Leeds in: Energy and People: Futures, complexity and challenges. Accepted.
Bale CSE; McCullen NJ; Foxon TJ; Gale WF An evaluation of local authority social network interventions for the promotion of energyefficiency measures in the domestic sector in: ECEEE SUMMER STUDY proceedings, vol. 2, pp.747-456.