Describing folds

Folds are wonderful things and highly variable. There's a plethora of jargon for describing them. More usefully, there are many ways of measuring them so that we can quantify their shape and orientation. From these careful descriptions we can learn more about how folds form and what they might be telling us about the larger-scale tectonics. Use the icons to explore or return to the main folds menu by clicking here.

Basic 3D

Basic geometry of folds as wave-forms. Covers hinges and axial surfaces too.

A closer look How to classify folds - going into more detail.
Folds on maps Quantitative approaches to deducing fold geometries from map-patterns, using structure contours. A real 3D insight!
Measuring What to measure on folds - orientations, wavelength and amplitude.
Vergence, facing How to use small-scale observations of folded rocks to gain insight on the larger-scale structure.
Cleavage and folds How cleavage can be used to deduce larger-scale structure.

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