School of Earth and Environment

Jane Francis Prof Dame Jane Francis

Visiting Professor of Palaeoclimatology

Email address:

PA details: Adele Laverton a.l.laverton@adm.leeds.ac.uk

Affiliation: Earth Surface Science Institute

Biography

Professor Dame Jane Francis is Director of British Antarctic Survey, an institute of the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC).

In the 2017 New Year Honours, she was appointed Dame Commander of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George (DCMG) in recognition of services to UK polar science and diplomacy.

Now a Visiting Professor of Palaeoclimatology, Dame Jane was formerly Head of School of Earth & Environment (2008) and Dean of the Faculty of Environment (2008 – 2013). In December 2017, the University of Leeds announced Dame Jane as its new Chancellor.

Jane’s principal research interests are in palaeoclimatology and palaeobotany. She specialises in the study of fossil plants, especially woods, and their use as tools for climate interpretation and information about past biodiversity. Her current work focuses on understanding past climate change during both greenhouse and icehouse periods, particularly in the polar regions, the areas on Earth most sensitive to climate change.

The Chancellor can be contacted through the Secretary's office.

Publications

  • Hughes KA, López-Martínez J, Francis JE, Crame JA, Carcavilla L, Shiraishi K, Hokada T, Yamaguchi A. 2016 Antarctic geoconservation: A review of current systems and practices.Environmental Conservation. Doi:10.1017/S0376892915000387
  • Witts JD, Whittle RJ, Wignall PB, Crame JA, Francis JE, Newton RJ, Bowman VC. 2016 Macrofossil evidence for a rapid and severe Cretaceous–Paleogene mass extinction in Antarctica Nature Communications 10.1038/ncomms11738
  • Miller MF, Knepprath NE, Cantrill DJ, Francis JE, Isbell JL. 2016 Highly productive polar forests from the Permian of Antarctica. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 10.1016/j.palaeo.2015.06.016
  • Césari SN, Panti C, Pujana RR, Francis JE, Marenssi SA. 2015 The late Oligocene flora from the Río Leona Formation, Argentinian Patagonia Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 1016/j.revpalbo.2015.01.002
  • Little CTS, Birgel D, Boyce AJ, Crame JA, Francis JE, Kiel S, Peckmann J, Pirrie D, Rollinson GK, Witts JD 2015 Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) shallow water hydrocarbon seeps from Snow Hill and Seymour Islands, James Ross Basin, Antarctic. PALAEOGEOGRAPHY PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY PALAEOECOLOGY 10.1016/j.palaeo.2014.11.020
  • Witts JD, Bowman VC, Wignall PB, Alistair Crame J, Francis JE, Newton RJ. 2015 Evolution and extinction of Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) cephalopods from the López de Bertodano Formation, Seymour Island, Antarctica. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 10.1016/j.palaeo.2014.11.002
  • Bowman VC, Francis JE, Askin RA, Riding JB, Swindles GT. 2014 Latest Cretaceous-earliest Paleogene vegetation and climate change at the high southern latitudes: Palynological evidence from Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 10.1016/j.palaeo.2014.04.018
  • Kemp DB, Robinson SA, Crame JA, Francis JE, Ineson J, Whittle RJ, Bowman V, O’Brien C. 2014 A cool temperate climate on the Antarctic Peninsula through the latest Cretaceous to early Paleogene. Geology 10.1130/G35512.1
  • Howell FW, Haywood AM, Dolan AM, Dowsett HJ, Francis JE, Hill DJ, Pickering SJ, Pope JO, Salzmann U, Wade BS. 2014 Can uncertainties in sea ice albedo reconcile patterns of data-model discord for the Pliocene and 20th/21st centuries? GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS 1002/2013GL058872
  • Crame JA, Beu AG, Ineson JR, Francis JE, Whittle RJ, Bowman VC. 2014 The Early Origin of the Antarctic Marine Fauna and Its Evolutionary Implications PLoS ONE 10.1371/journal.pone.0114743
  • Loptson CA, Lunt DJ, Francis JE. 2014 Investigating vegetation–climate feedbacks during the early Eocene. Climate of the Past 5194/cp-10-419-2014
  • Hunter SJ, Haywood AM, Valdes PJ, Francis JE, Pound MJ. 2013 Modelling equable climates of the Late Cretaceous: Can new boundary conditions resolve data-model discrepancies? Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 10.1016/j.palaeo.2013.08.009
  • Hill DJ, Haywood AM, Valdes PJ, Francis JE, Lunt DJ, Wade BS, Bowman VC. 2013 Paleogeographic controls on the onset of the Antarctic circumpolar current. Geophysical Research Letters 10.1002/grl.50941
  • Tosolini A-MP, Cantrill DJ, Francis JE. 2013 Paleocene flora from Seymour Island, Antarctica: revision of Dusén’s (1908) angiosperm taxa Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology 10.1080/03115518.2013.764698
  • Fielding CR, Harwood DM, Winter DM, Francis JE. 2012 Neogene stratigraphy of Taylor Valley, Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica: Evidence for climate dynamism and a vegetated Early Pliocene coastline of McMurdo Sound Global and Planetary Change 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2010.09.003
  • Bowman VC, Francis JE, Riding JB, Hunter SJ, Haywood AM. 2012 A latest Cretaceous to earliest Paleogene dinoflagellate cyst zonation from Antarctica, and implications for phytoprovincialism in the high southern latitudes. REVIEW OF PALAEOBOTANY AND PALYNOLOGY 10.1016/j.revpalbo.2011.11.004
  • Haywood AM, Ridgwell A, Lunt DJ, Hill DJ, Pound MJ, Dowsett HJ, Dolan AM, Francis JE, Williams M. 2011 Are there pre-Quaternary geological analogues for a future greenhouse warming? Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 10.1098/rsta.2010.0317
  • Cantrill DJ, Tosolini A-MP, Francis JE. 2011 Paleocene flora from Seymour Island, Antarctica: revision of Dusén's (1908) pteridophyte and conifer taxa. Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology 10.1080/03115518.2011.565214
  • Fielding CR, Harwood DM, Winter DM, Francis JE. Neogene stratigraphy of Taylor Valley, Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica: Evidence for climate dynamism and a vegetated Early Pliocene coastline of McMurdo Sound Global and Planetary Change 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2010.09.003
  • Allison 1, Bindoff NL, Bindschadler RA, Cox PM, de Noblet N, England MH, Francis JE, Gruber N, Haywood AM, Karoly DJ, Kaser G, Le Quere C, Lenton TM, Mann ME, McNeil BI, Pitman AJ, Rahmstorf S, Rignot E, Snellnhuber HJ, Schneider SH, Sherwood SC, Somerville RCJ, Steffen K, Steig EJ, Visbeck M, Weaver AJ. 2009 The Copenhagen Diagnosis, 2009: Updating the World on the Latest Climate Science
  • Thorn VC, Riding JB, Francis JE. 2009 The Late Cretaceous dinoflagellate cyst Manumiella — Biostratigraphy, systematics, and palaeoecological signals in Antarctica Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 1016/j.revpalbo.2009.04.009
  • Haywood AM, Dowsett HJ, Valdes PJ, Lunt DJ, Francis JE, Sellwood BW. 2009 Introduction. Pliocene climate, processes and problems. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 1098/rsta.2008.0205
  • Haywood AM, Dowsett HJ, Valdes PJ, Lunt DJ, Francis JE, Sellwood BW. 2008 Pliocene climate: processes and problems Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • Thorn VC, Francis JE, Riding JB 2008 TERMINAL CRETACEOUS CLIMATE CHANGE AND BIOTIC RESPONSE IN ANTARCTICA. PALYNOLOGY
  • Francis J, Marenssi S, Levy R, Hambrey M, Thorn V, Mohr B, Brinkhuis H, Warnaar J, Zachos J, Bohaty S, DeConto R 2008 FROM GREENHOUSE TO ICEHOUSE - THE EOCENE/OLIGOCENE IN ANTARCTICA 10.1016/S1571-9197(08)00008-6
  • Francis JE, Marenssi S, Levy R, Hambrey M, Thorn VC, Mohr B, Brinkhuis H, Warnaar J, Zachos J, Bohaty S, DeConto R. 2008 Chapter 8 From Greenhouse to Icehouse - The Eocene/Oligocene in Antarctica Developments in Earth and Environmental Sciences 10.1016/S1571-9197(08)00008-6
  • Francis J, Ashworth A, Cantrill D, Crame J, Howe J, Stephens R, Tosolini A-M, Thorn V. 2008 100 million years of Antarctic climate evolution: evidence from fossil plants
  • Francis JE, Haywood AM, Ashworth A, Valdes P. 2007 Tundra environments in the Neogene Sirius Group, Antarctica: evidence from the geological record and coupled atmosphere-vegetation models Journal of the Geological Society 10.1144/0016-76492005-191
  • Harland M, FranciS JE, Brentnall SJ, Beerling DJ. 2007 Cretaceous (Albian-Aptidn) conifer wood from Northern Hemisphere high latitudes: Forest composition and palaeoclimate. REV PALAEOBOT PALYNO 10.1016/j.revpalbo.2006.07.005
  • Francis JE, Harland BM. 2006 Termite borings in Early Cretaceous fossil wood, Isle of Wight, UK CRETACEOUS RESEARCH 1016/j.cretres.2006.02.001
  • Francis JE, Harland M. 2006 Termite borings in Early Cretaceous fossil wood, Isle of Wight, UK Cretaceous Research 1016/j.cretres.2006.02.001
  • Hayes PA, Francis JE, Cantrill D, Crame JA 2006-06 Palaeoclimate analysis of Late Cretaceous angiosperm leaf floras, James Ross Island, Antarctica. Geological Society, London, Special Publications.
  • Francis JE 2006 Fossil forests of Antarctica - heralds of past global climate change. World University Network Video Seminar
  • Francis JE 2006 Fossil forests of Antarctica - heralds of past global climate change Invited seminar, Museum of Palaeontology, University of Zurich
  • Francis JE, Crame JA, Pirrie D 2006 Cretaceous-Tertiary high-latitude palaeoenvironments, James Ross Basin, Antarctica: introduction Geological Society, London, Special Publications 1144/GSL.SP.2006.258.01.01
  • Francis JE, Thorn VC 2006 Antarctic fossil plants
  • Francis JE, Harland M, Brentnall S, Beerling D 2006 Evergreen Or Deciduous Habit Of Cretaceous Polar Conifers And Their Impact On Global Climate. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research annual conference. Hobart, Australia
  • Howe J, Francis JE 2005-11 Metamorphosed palaeosols associated with Cretaceous fossil forests, Alexander Island, Antarctica J GEOL SOC LONDON
  • BRENTNALL SJ, BEERLING DJ, OSBORNE CP, HARLAND M, FRANCIS JE, VALDES PJ, WITTIG VE 2005-12 Climatic and ecological determinants of leaf lifespan in polar forests of the high CO2 Cretaceous 'greenhouse' world Global Change Biology 1111/j.1365-2486.2005.001068.x
  • Brentnall SJ, Beerling DJ, Osborne CP, Harlandw M, Francis JE, Valdes PJ, Wittig VE 2005-12 Climatic and ecological determinants of leaf lifespan in polar forests of the high CO2 Cretaceous 'greenhouse' world GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY 1111/j.1365-2486.2005.01068.x
  • Brentnall SJ, Beerling DJ, Osborne CP, Harland M, Francis JE, Valdes PJ, Wittig VE 01/12/2005 Climatic and ecological determinants of leaf lifespan in polar forests of the high CO2 Cretaceous 'greenhouse' world Global Change Biology 1111/j.1365-2486.2005.001068.x
  • Stephens RS, Francis JE 2005 Neutron tomography: a new technique for studying three-dimensional fossils European Geoscience Union
  • Francis JE, Ashworth A, Cantrill DJ, Roof S 2005 Neogene climates near the South Pole: fossil evidence for interglacial warming during Sirius Group times, Transantarctic Mountains European Geoscience Union Meeting, Vienna
  • Francis JE 2005 Fossil forests in the polar regions: evidence for warm polar climates in the past - and in the future? UK-China Partners in Science workshop, Shanghai, China
  • Stephens RS, Francis JE 2005 Early Eocene palaeoenvironments in Antarctica: evidence from fossil conifers of Seymour Island Geological Society of America
  • Harland M, Francis JE, Beerling D, Brentnall S 2005 Cretaceous polar forests: fossil data versus model predictions European Geoscience Union meeting, Vienna
  • Harland M, Francis JE, Beerling D, Brentnall S 2005 Cretaceous polar forests: composition and leaf life-span North American Palaeontological Convention, Nova Scotia, Canada
  • Harland M, Francis JE, Beerling D, Brentnall S 2005 Cretaceous polar conifer forests: assessing leaf habit for climate modelling Geological Society of America, Calgary
  • Eklund H, Cantrill DJ, Francis JE 2004 A late Cretaceous mesofossil assemblage from Table Nunatak, Antarctica: lycopods, ferns, and vegetative structures of conifers and angiosperms Cretaceous Research 1016/j.cretres.2003.11.004
  • Harland M, Francis JE, Beerling D, Brentnall S 2004-03 Northern hemisphere Cretaceous polar conifers and their evergreen or deciduous habit International Conference of Palaeobotany; Argentina, Book of abstracts
  • Francis JE, Haywood AM, Ashworth A, Roof S, Cantrill DJ 2004-03 Neogene climates near the South Pole: evidence from fossil plants and climate-vegetation models Palaeontological Association Annual Meeting; Lille, France, Book of abstracts
  • Howe J, Francis JE 2004-03 Mid Cretaceous fossil forests from Alexander Island, Antarctica International Organisation of Palaeobotany; Argentina, Book of abstracts
  • Gomez B, Llorens L, Beerling D, Francis JE, Thévenard F, Daviero-Gomez V, Aucour AM. 2004 Cretaceous CO2 signals from conifer Frenelopsis. International Oragnisation of Palaeobotany; Argentina, Book of abstracts
  • Francis JE, Tosolini AP, Cantrill DJ. 2004 Antarctic Palaeogene floras: biodiversity and climate change International Organisation or Palaeobotany; Argentina, Book of abstracts
  • Ashworth A, Cantrill DJ, Francis JE, Roof S. 2004 The Neogene environment of the Beardmore Glacier, Transantarctic Mountains Eos Transactions AGU - Fall meeting
  • Creber GT, Francis JE. 2004 The growth of trees in the polar regions: evidence from Glossopteris of Permian age, Antarctica. Acta Horticulturae
  • Francis JE, Haywood AM, Valdes PJ. 2004 Plants and climates of the Milldle Pliocene Sirius group, Antarctica: evidence from fossil plants, climates and biome models. XXVIII SCAR Open Science Conference "Antarctica and the Southern Ocean in the Global System", Book of abstracts
  • Crame JA, Francis JE, Cantrill DJ, Pirrie D. 2004 Maastrichtian stratigraphy of Antarctica. Cretaceous Research 1016/j.cretres.2004.02.002
  • Eklund H, Cantrill DJ, Francis JE. 2004 Late Cretaceous plant mesofossils from Table Nunatak, Antarctica. Cretaceous Research 10.1016/j.cretres.2003.11.004
  • Roof S, Ashworth A, Cantrill DJ, Francis JE. 2004 Evidence of active warm-based Neogene glaciation in the Transantarctic Mountains Eos Transactions AGU Fall Meeting
  • Crame JA, Francis JE, Cantrill DJ, Pirrie D. 2003 Maastrichtian palaeoenvironments of Antarctica International symposium on Antarctic earth sciences; Potsdam, Germany
  • Creber GT, Francis JE. 2003 HIGH LATITUDE FOSSIL FORESTS IN GREENHOUSE CLIMATES: INFLUENCE OF THE POLAR LIGHT REGIME ON THEIR GROWTH. Acta Horticulturae 10.17660/ActaHortic.2003.615.4
  • Francis JE, Harland M, Beerling D, Brentnall S. 2003 Deciduous and evergreen habits for Cretaceous polar conifers. Geological Society of America annual meeting; Seattle, USA
  • Gomez B, Llorens L, Beerling D, Francis JE, Aucour AM, Daviero-Gomez V, Guignard G, Thévenard F. 2003 Could Frenelopsis (Coniferales, Cheirolepidiaceae) be used as a proxy measure of atmospheric CO2 in Cretaceous? Annual Meeting of the Linnean Society, Palaeobotany, London
  • Francis JE, Tosolini AP, Cantrill DJ. 2003 Biodiversity and climate change in Antarctic palaeogene floras International symposium on Antarctic earth sciences; Potsdam, Germany
  • Francis JE, Askin RA, Tosolini AP, Cantrill DJ, Raine I 2003 Antarctic vegetation and climate through the Cenozoic. EGS-AGU-EUG joint assembly; Nice, France
  • Haywood AM, Valdes PJ, Francis JE, Sellwood BW. 2002 Global middle Pliocene biome reconstruction: A data/model synthesis. GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS 10.1029/2002GC000358
  • Francis JE, Smith MP. 2002 Special Issue - Palaeoclimate reconstructions using fossils and lithological indicators - Proceedings of a Paleontological Association symposium at the Geoscience 2000 meeting of the Geological Society of London – Foreword PALAEOGEOGRAPHY PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY PALAEOECOLOGY 10.1016/S0031-0182(01)00448-5
  • Francis JE, Poole I. 2002 Cretaceous and early Tertiary climates of Antarctica: evidence from fossil wood. PALAEOGEOGRAPHY PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY PALAEOECOLOGY
  • Cantrill DJ, Francis JE, Tosolini AP. 2002 Response of floristic diversity to environmental change during the Tertiary: an example from Seymour Island, Antarctica. First International Palaeontological Congress, Sydney, Geological Society of Australia Abstracts
  • Harland M, Francis JE, Beerling D, Osborne C, Brentnall S. 2002 Reconstructing polar forest-climate dynamics from fossil wood and computer models. Palaeontological Association Annual Meeting, Cambridge, UK
  • Haywood AM, Valdes PJ, Francis JE. 2002 New predictions of mid-Pliocene Antarctic climate and biome distributions: applications of combined climate-vegetation modelling to the Sirius Group debate Geological Society of America, Denver, USA
  • Francis JE, Haywood AM, Valdes PJ, Sellwood P. 2002 Middle Pliocene vegetation and climates of the Sirius Group, Antarctica: evidence from fossil plants, climate and biome models. Geological Society of America, Denver, USA
  • Francis JE. 2002 Fossil forests of the polar regions: heralds of global climate change. Journal of the Open University Geological Society (OUGS Journal)
  • Francis JE, Smith MP. 2002 Foreword: Palaeoclimate reconstructions using fossils and lithological indicators. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 10.1016/S0031-0182(01)00448-5
  • Francis JE, Smith MP. 2002 Foreword. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 10.1016/S0031-0182(01)00448-5
  • Francis JE, Tosolini AP, Cantrill DJ. 2002 Climate change in Antarctica during the late Cretaceous. 8th International Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems, Cape Town, South Africa
  • Tosolini AP, Francis JE, Cantrill DJ. 2002 Climate change in Antarctic Palaeogene floras. Palaeontological Association Annual Meeting, Cambridge, UK
  • Francis JE, Tosolini AP, Cantrill DJ. 2002 Biodiversity response to climate change in Palaeogene floras of Antarctica. 6th European Palaeobotany-Palynology Conference, Athens, Greece
  • Tosolini AP, Francis JE, Cantrill DJ. 2002 Antarctic palaeoclimates from Palaeogene floras. Gondwana 11, Christchurch, New Zealand
  • Levy R, Florindo F, Francis JE, Harwood D, Naish T, Niessen F, Powell R, Wilson G. 2002 ANDRILL: stratigraphic drilling for the climatic and tectonic history of Antarctica. Geological Society of America Abstracts
  • Francis JE, Tosolini AP, Cantrill DJ. 2002 AFI workshop: Biodiversity response to climate change in Palaeogene floras of Antarctica. Antarctic Funding Initiative Workshop, Cambridge
  • Poole I, Cantrill DJ, Hayes P, Francis J. 2000 The fossil record of Cunoniaceae: new evidence from Late Cretaceous wood of Antarctica? Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 1016/S0034-6667(00)00023-3
  • Poole IJ, Francis JE. 2000 The first record of fossil wood of Winteraceae from the Upper Cretaceous of Antarctica Annals of Botany
  • Woolfe KJ, Stewart LK, Francis JE, Arnot MJ 2000-06 PC99: a new freeware for manipulating and graphically displaying palaeocurrent data. Sedimentary Geology 10.1016/S0037-0738(00)00034-8
  • Francis JE. 2000 Fossil wood from Eocene high latitude forests McMurdo Sound, Antarctica
  • Poole I, Richter HG, Francis JE. 2000 Evidence for Gondwanan origins for sassafras (Lauraceae)? Late Cretaceous fossil wood of Antarctica IAWA J
  • Beerling D, Francis JE. 2000 Back to the future for plant and ecosystem development. Trends in Ecology and Evolution
  • Poole IJ, Gottwald H, Francis JE. 2000 Illicioxylon, an element of Gondwanan polar forests? Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary woods of Antarctica. Annals of Botany
  • Poole I, Francis JE. 1999 The first record of fossil atherospermataceous wood from the upper Cretaceous of Antarctica. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 10.1016/S0034-6667(99)00013-5
  • Poole IJ, Francis JE. 1999 Reconstruction of Antarctic palaeoclimates using angiosperm wood anatomy. Proceedings of the 5th European Palaeobotanical and Palynological Congress, Acta Palaeobotanica
  • Creber GT, Francis JE. 1999 Fossil tree-ring analysis: palaeodendrology
  • Francis JE. 1999 Evidence from fossil plants for Antarctic Palaeoclimates over the past 100 million years. Terra Antartica
  • Poole IJ, Francis JE. 1998 Reconstruction of Antarctic palaeoclimates using angiosperm wood anatomy. European Palaeobotanical and Palynological Meeting, Krakow, Poland
  • Allen P, Alvin KL, Andrews JE, Batten DJ, Charlton WA, Cleevely RJ, Ensom PC, Evans SE, Francis JE, Hailwood EA. 1998 Purbeck–Wealden (early Cretaceous) climates. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 10.1016/S0016-7878(98)80066-7
  • Francis JE. 1998 Older ice. New Scientist
  • Francis JE. 1998 Interpreting palaeoclimates
  • Francis JE, Poole IJ. 1998 Exceptional preservation of Cretaceous and Tertiary fossil wood from Antarctica. Geoscience '98, Keele University
  • Francis JE. 1998 Antarctic palaeoclimates over the past 100 million years. University of Siena, Workshop on Global Change
  • Francis JE, Wignall PB. 1997 Fieldwork safety at Leeds. Teaching Earth Sciences
  • Francis JE. Climate, palaeobotany, Antarctic
  • Francis JE, Feldmann RM. Fossils, Antarctic, biotas.
  • Clayton, J. E. Francis, S. J. Hillier, F. Hodson, R. A. Saunders, J. Stone. 1996 The Implications of Reworking on the Mineralogy and Chemistry of Lower Carboniferous K-Bentonites. Clay Minerals 10.1180/claymin.1996.031.3.08
  • Clayton T, Francis JE, Hillier SJ, Hodson F, Saunders RA, Stone J. Carboniferous, K-bentonites, Mendips
  • Francis JE. antarctica, fossil, wood, Pliocene
  • Francis JE, Hill RS. fossil plants, climatology, growth rings, Pliocene, Transantarctic Mountains
  • Creber GT, Francis JE. Permian, antarctica, Glossopteris, secondary wood growth
  • Bowman VC, Francis JE, Riding JB. 10.1130/G34891.1
  • Francis JE, Marenssi S, Levy R, Hambrey M, Thorn VC, Mohr B, Brinkhuis H, Warnaar J, Zachos J, Bohaty S . 10.1016/S1571-9197(08)00008-6
  • Stephens RS, Francis JE, Crame JA . antarctica, insects, Eocene, first record