School of Earth and Environment

Bruce Yardley Prof Bruce Yardley

Emeritus Professor of Metamorphic Geochemistry

Telephone number: +44(0) 113 34 35227
Email address:
Room: FH 1.09

Affiliation: Institute of Geophysics and Tectonics



My research interests are in fluid processes in the Earth's crust, and span a wide range of topics, including aspects of ore formation, diagenesis and prograde and retrograde metamorphism, taking place at all levels in the crust. I am particularly interested in chemical mass transfer by fluids and in the cycle of interactions between fluid flow, temperature, mineralogical reactions and the rheology and permeability of the crust. The techniques that my group has employed in recent years include field and petrographic observations, rock and mineral analysis, fluid inclusion studies (including multi-element chemical analysis), experimental studies and geochemical modelling of fluid rock interaction. I am interested both in exploiting results from the study of active processes today for the improved understanding of ancient flow regimes, and in understanding how human activity in the subsurface may modify natural processes in the future.

My major research activity at the present time is in 3 areas.

1) Crustal fluid compositions and the formation of hydrothermal ores. I have been investigating the metal contents of crustal fluids for a number of years, including establishing an LA-ICP-MS laboratory for fluid inclusion analysis in collaboration with David Banks. We installed an Agilent 7500c ICP-MS and a Geolas Q excimer laser system which was optimised for laser ablation analysis of fluid inclusions in natural and synthetic quartz. The development of the methods is described in Allan et al. (2005) while the fluid inclusions LAICPMS software that Murray Allan originally developed in Leeds, known as SILLS, is described in Guillong et al. (2008). My work on crustal fluid compositions and metal transport has resulted in a several review papers featuring different aspects of metal transport and fluid processes (Yardley 2005, 2009, 2012, Yardley & Cleverley 2013). Current work on hydrothermal ores is being carried out as part of the NEETE and GEMCREE projects of the NERC SoS Minerals Programme.

2) Fluid-rock interactions arising from the injection of CO2 into water-bearing sedimentary formations. I was part of the NERC UK Carbon Capture and Storage Consortium, and this has led to further work through the NERC CRIUS Consortium, with Cambridge, Manchester and BGS and the EPSRC CO2FLIP project with Sheffield, Aberdeen and Tsinghua University, Beijing. Work with Andrew Kilpatrick and Joergen Rosenqvist (CRIUS) has concentrated on experimental studies of the rates of mineral dissolution triggered by CO2 injection (Rosenqvist et al. 2012, Kaszuba et al. 2013), while work with Benoit Lamy-Chappuis (CO2FLIP) has involved directly measuring and modelling the impact of calcite dissolution on rock permeability (Lamy-Chappuis et al. 2014)

3) Water residence in the deep crust and the influence of mineral-fluid interactions on the strength of the crust. I have been collaborating with Prof Wilhelm Heinrich's group at GFZ Potsdam to investigate the kinetics of hydration reactions, most recently with support from a Humboldt Research Award of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation (2009-11). This work involved hydrothermal experiments at 300 – 500oC and has demonstrated that old metamorphic rocks residing in cooled crust react with free water on a scale of hundreds of years, so that the frequent survival of ancient high grade rocks demonstrates that deep stable crystalline crust remains dry over geological time, except locally in fractures (Yardley et al. 2010, Yardley et al. 2014).

Secondment as Chief Geologist to the Radioactive Waste Management Directorate of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority

I have recently been seconded to the RWMD to take on a 60% role as Chief Geologist. I have a long-standing interest in the problems of disposal of nuclear waste, which my research interests are closely allied to. I was Science Secretary of the Geological Society of London in 2005 and took the lead in organising a one-day meeting on “Geosciences and the Long Term Management of Radioactive Wastes” which brought together international experts in geological disposal together with members of CoRWM, the committee tasked with drawing up recommendations as to how the UK government should deal with Radioactive Waste. Subsequently I helped organise a 2008 meeting “The Geological Disposal of Radioactive waste: How geologists understand the Earth beneath our feet”, intended to explain to non-specialists what geologists and geophysicists could and could not be expected to deduce about a possible site prior to excavation. In January 2013, I was asked to meet with the Cumbria group of MPs as an independent geologist at a fact-finding session on a possible Geological Disposal Facility in their region.

Like many Earth scientists, I am concerned that we find a permanent repository for the UK’s inventory of radioactive waste. The process of securing local agreement has taken time in every country, but other European countries have gained the confidence and support of local communities and are more advanced in the process than this country. Learning from the experience of our neighbours, we in the UK now have the opportunity to look afresh for a suitable site from first principles, and I am delighted to have had the opportunity to join the team which will establish a suitable site for our radioactive waste and thereby help safeguard the future for countless generations to come.


  • Lamy-Chappuis B; Angus D; Fisher QJ; Yardley BWD (2016) The effect of CO2-enriched brine injection on the mechanical properties of calcite-bearing sandstone, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 52, pp.84-95. doi: 10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.06.018
  • Ewing RC; Whittleston RA; Yardley BWD (2016) Geological disposal of nuclear waste: A primer, Elements, 12, pp.233-237. doi: 10.2113/gselements.12.4.233
  • Cann JR; Mccaig AM; Yardley BWD (2015) Rapid generation of reaction permeability in the roots of black smoker systems, Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus, Geofluids, 15, pp.179-192. doi: 10.1111/gfl.12117
  • Yardley BWD; Bodnar RJ (2014) Fluids in the continental crust, Geochemical Perspectives, 3, pp.1-123.
  • Yardley BWD; Rhede D; Heinrich W (2014) Rates of retrograde metamorphism and their implications for the rheology of the crust: an experimental study, Journal of Petrology, 55, pp.623-641. doi: 10.1093/petrology/egu001
  • Lamy-Chappuis B; Angus DAC; Fisher Q; Grattoni C; Yardley BWD (2014) Rapid porosity and permeability changes of calcareous sandstone due to CO2-enriched brine injection, Geophysical Research Letters, 41, pp.399-406. doi: 10.1002/2013GL058534
  • Purser G; Rochelle CA; Wallis HC; Rosenqvist J; Kilpatrick AD; Yardley BWD (2014) Note: CO<inf>2</inf>-mineral dissolution experiments using a rocking autoclave and a novel titanium reaction cell, Review of Scientific Instruments, 85, . doi: 10.1063/1.4893642
  • Yardley BWD; Cleverley JS (2014) The role of metamorphic fluids in the formation of ore deposits, Geological Society Special Publication, 393, pp.117-134. doi: 10.1144/SP393.5
  • Smith MP; Gleeson SA; Yardley BWD (2013) Hydrothermal fluid evolution and metal transport in the Kiruna District, Sweden: Contrasting metal behaviour in aqueous and aqueous-carbonic brines, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 102, pp.89-112. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2012.10.015
  • Kaszuba J; Yardley B; Andreani M (2013) Experimental perspectives of mineral dissolution and precipitation due to carbon dioxide-water-rock interactions, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 77, pp.153-188. doi: 10.2138/rmg.2013.77.5
  • Rosenqvist J; Kilpatrick AD; Yardley BWD (2012) Solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous fluids and mineral suspensions at 294K and subcritical pressures, Applied Geochemistry, 27, pp.1610-1614. doi: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2012.03.008
  • Yardley B (2011) WHEN ACCESSORIES ARE ESSENTIALS, pp.293-293.
  • Allan MM; Turner A; Yardley BWD (2011) Relation between the dissolution rates of single minerals and reservoir rocks in acidified pore waters, APPL GEOCHEM, 26, pp.1289-1301. doi: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2011.05.002
  • Houston S; Smalley C; Laycock A; Yardley BWD (2011) The relative importance of buffering and brine inputs in controlling the abundance of Na and Ca in sedimentary formation waters, MAR PETROL GEOL, 28, pp.1242-1251. doi: 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2011.03.002
  • Yardley B (2011) WHOSE PAPER IS IT ANYWAY?, pp.149-149.
  • Allan MM; Morrison GW; Yardley BWD (2011) Physicochemical Evolution of a Porphyry-Breccia System: A Laser Ablation ICP-MS Study of Fluid Inclusions in the Mount Leyshon Au Deposit, Queensland, Australia, ECON GEOL, 106, pp.413-436.
  • Yardley B; Person M; Worden R (2011) Biographical profile of incoming editor Craig Manning, pp.123-123. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-8123.2011.00331.x
  • Ingebritsen SE; Worden R; Yardley B (2011) Biographical profile of incoming editor Mark Person, pp.1-2. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-8123.2011.00326.x
  • Yardley B; Joachim B; Bonneville S (2011) PLANNING YOUR CAREER - A WORK IN PROGRESS, pp.5-5.
  • Yardley B (2010) IS THIS PROFOUND AND SIGNIFICANT?, pp.141-141.
  • Garven G; Manning CE; Yardley BWD (2010) Frontiers in geofluids: editorial, GEOFLUIDS, 10, pp.1-2. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-8123.2010.00290.x
  • Garven G; Manning CE; Yardley BWD (2010) Net Frontiers in geofluids: Editorial, pp.1-2. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-8123.2010.00290.x
  • Yardley BWD; Harlov DE; Heinrich W (2010) Rates of retrograde metamorphism and their implications for crustal rheology, GEOFLUIDS, 10, pp.234-240. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-8123.2010.00286.x
  • Yardley BWD (2009) The role of water in the evolution of the continental crust, J GEOL SOC LONDON, 166, pp.585-600. doi: 10.1144/0016-76492008-101
  • Allan M; Yardley B (2009) Silicate dissolution kinetics under acid conditions: Applications to CO2 sequestration, GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA, 73, pp.A28-A28.
  • Masoudi F; Mehrabi B; Aghdam MR; Yardley BWD (2009) The nature of fluids during pegmatite development in metamorphic terrains: Evidence from Hamadan complex, Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic zone, Iran, J GEOL SOC INDIA, 73, pp.407-418. doi: 10.1007/s12594-009-0020-1
  • Ingebritsen S; Worden R; Yardley B (2009) EDITORIAL, pp.1-1. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-8123.2009.00243.x
  • Yardley B; Banks D (2009) Squeezing out the last drop: LA-ICP-MS analysis of liquid droplets trapped in crystals, Spectroscopy Europe, 21, pp.6-8.
  • Heijlen W; Banks DA; Muchez P; Stensgard BM; Yardley BWD (2008) The Nature of Mineralizing Fluids of the Kipushi Zn-Cu Deposit, Katanga, Democratic Repubic of Congo: Quantitative Fluid Inclusion Analysis using Laser Ablation ICP-MS and Bulk Crush-Leach Methods, ECON GEOL, 103, pp.1459-1482.
  • Smith A; Yardley B (2008) The origin of the musical stones of Skiddaw, Proceedings Cumberland Geological Society, 7, pp.285-295.
  • Houston SJ; Yardley BWD; Smalley PC; Collins I (2007) Rapid fluid-rock interaction in oilfield reservoirs, GEOLOGY, 35, pp.1143-1146. doi: 10.1130/G24264A.1
  • Yardley B (2007) Citation for the Presentation of the 2006 Urey Award to Herbert Palme, pp.S4-S4. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2007.06.044
  • Yardley B (2007) Citation for the presentation of the 2006 Houtermans Award to James Badro, pp.S27-S27. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2007.06.043
  • Yardley B (2007) Citation for the presentation of the 2006 Urey Award to Herbert Palme, . doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2007.06.044
  • Yardley B (2007) Citation for the presentation of the 2006 Houtermans Award to James Badro, . doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2007.06.043
  • Allan MM; Yardley BWD (2007) Tracking meteoric infiltration into a magmatic-hydrothermal system: A cathodoluminescence, oxygen isotope and trace element study of quartz from Mt. Leyshon, Australia, CHEM GEOL, 240, pp.343-360. doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2007.03.004
  • Neumayr P; Hagemann SG; Banks DA; Yardley BWD; Couture JF; Landis GP; Rye R (2007) Fluid chemistry and evolution of hydrothermal fluids in an Archaean transcrustal fault zone network: the case of the Cadillac Tectonic Zone, Abitibi greenstone belt, Canada, CAN J EARTH SCI, 44, pp.745-773. doi: 10.1139/E06-130
  • Yardley B; Ingebritsen S; Worden R (2007) New developments at Geofluids, pp.1. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-8123.2007.00172.x
  • Houston SJ; Yardley BWD; Smalley PC; Collins I (2006) Precipitation and dissolution of minerals durina waterfloodina of a North Sea Oil Field, SPE Eighth International Symposium on Oilfield Scale 2006, 2006, pp.300-308.
  • Shmulovich KI; Yardley BWD; Graham CM (2006) Solubility of quartz in crustal fluids: experiments and general equations for salt solutions and H2O-CO2 mixtures at 400-800 degrees C and 0.1-0.9 GPa, GEOFLUIDS, 6, pp.154-167. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-8123.2006.00140.x
  • Allan MM; Yardley BWD; Forbes LJ; Shmulovich KI; Banks DA; Shepherd TJ (2005) Validation of LA-ICP-MS fluid inclusion analysis with synthetic fluid inclusions, AM MINERAL, 90, pp.1767-1775.
  • Yardley BWD (2005) 100th Anniversary Special Paper: Metal concentrations in crustal fluids and their relationship to ore formation, ECON GEOL, 100, pp.613-632.
  • Masoudi F; Yardley BWD (2005) Magmatic and metamorphic fluids in pegmatite development: evidence from the Borujerd Complex, Iran, Journal of Sciences, Islamic Republic of Iran, 16, pp.43-53.
  • Allan M; Yardley BWD (2005) Hydrothermal evolution of the Mt. Leyshon Intrusive Complex, Australia, In: Baker T (Ed) Gold deposits of the Drummond Basin and Charters Towers Region, Geological Society of Australia, Specialist Group in Economic Geology, pp.34-42.
  • Yardley B; Forbes L; Allan M; Banks D (2003) LA-ICP-MS analysis of gas-water fluid inclusions, Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, Section B: Applied Earth Science, 112, .
  • Williams PJ; Fu B; Pollard PJ; Baker T; Margotomo W; Ryan CG; Van Achterbergh E; Mernagh TP; Condliffe E; Yardley BW (2003) Fluid inclusion geochemistry of the Grasberg Cu-Au porphyry, Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, Section B: Applied Earth Science, 112, .
  • Gleeson SA; Yardley BWD (2003) Surface-derived fluids in basement rocks: Inferences from palaeo-hydrothermal systems, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 78-79, pp.61-65. doi: 10.1016/S0375-6742(03)00147-X
  • Gleeson SA; Yardley BWD; Munz IA; Boyce AJ (2003) Infiltration of basinal fluids into high-grade basement, South Norway: sources and behaviour of waters and brines, GEOFLUIDS, 3, pp.33-48.
  • Mehrabi B; Yardley BWD; Komninou A (2003) Modelling the As-Au association in hydrothermal gold mineralization: example of Zarshuran Deposit, NW Iran, Journal of Sciences, Islamic Republic of Iran, 14, pp.37-52.
  • Yardley BWD; Bennett AJ; Banks DA (2003) Controls on the chemical composition of crustal brines, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 78-9, pp.133-135. doi: 10.1016/S0375-6742(03)00096-7
  • Yardley BWD; Graham JT (2002) The origins of salinity in metamorphic fluids, GEOFLUIDS, 2, pp.249-256.
  • Munz IA; Yardley BWD; Gleeson SA (2002) Petroleum infiltration of high-grade basement, South Norway: Pressure-Temperature-time-composition (P-T-t-X) constraints, GEOFLUIDS, 2, pp.41-53.
  • Gleeson SA; Yardley BWD (2002) Veins and mineralisation in basement rocks: the role of penetration of sedimentary fluids, In: Stober I; Bucher K (Ed) Water-rock Interaction, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp.189-205.
  • Masoudi F; Yardley BWD; Cliff RA (2002) Rb-Sr geochronology of pegmatites, plutonic rocks and a hornfels in the region south-west of Arak, Iran, Journal of Sciences, Islamic Republic of Iran, 13, pp.249-254.
  • Deakin D; West LJ; Stewart DI; Yardley BWD (2001) The leaching characteristics of chromite ore processing residue, ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMISTRY AND HEALTH, 23, pp.201-206.
  • Deakin D; West LJ; Stewart DI; Yardley BWD (2001) Leaching behaviour of a chromium smelter waste heap, WASTE MANAGEMENT, 21, pp.265-270.
  • Schmulovich K; Graham C; Yardley BWD (2001) Quartz, albite and diopside solubilities in H2O-NaCl and H2O-CO2 fluids at 0.5-0.9GPa, Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 141, pp.95-108.
  • Cleverley JS; Yardley BWD; Willan RCR; Banks DA (2001) Measuring salt in magmas: implications for mineralization?, Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy - Section B, B110, pp.pp.51.
  • Yardley BWD (2000) The chemistry of the Earth, Teaching Earth Sciences, 25, .
  • Yardley BWD (2000) Citation analysis: democracy on the rocks, Nature, 403, pp.pp.373.
  • Yardley BWD; Banks DA; Barnicoat AC (2000) The chemistry of crustal brines: tracking their origins, In: Porter TM (Ed) Hydrothermal iron oxide copper-gold and related deposits, Australian Mineral Foundation, pp.61-70.
  • Banks DA; Yardley BWD (2000) Tracing brines in crustal processes, Goldschmidt 2000, 5, pp.pp.187.
  • Banks DA; Giuliani G; Yardley BWD; Cheilletz A (2000) Emerald mineralisation in Colombia: fluid chemistry and the role of brine mixing, Mineralium Deposita, 35, pp.699-713.
  • Gleeson SA; Yardley BWD; Boyce AJ; Fallick AE; Munz IA (2000) From basin to basement: the movement of surface fluids into the crust, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 69-70, pp.527-532.
  • Yardley BWD; Valley JW (2000) The petrologic case for a dry lower crust. Reply to a comment by P.E. Wannamaker, Journal of Geophysical Research, 105, pp.6065-6068.
  • Banks DA; Green R; Cliff RA; Yardley BWD (2000) Chlorine isotopes in fluid inclusions: determination of the origins of salinity in magmatic fluids, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 64, pp.1785-1789.
  • Yardley BWD; Gleeson SA; Bruce S; Banks DA (2000) Origin of retrograde fluids in metamorphic rocks, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 69-70, pp.281-285.
  • Hagemann SG; Barley ME; Folkert SL; Yardley BWD; Banks DA (1999) A hydrothermal origin for the giant BIF-hosted Tom Price iron ore deposit, In: Stanley CJ (Ed) Mineral deposits: process to processing, A.A. Balkema, pp.41-44.
  • Balashov VN; Yardley BWD; Lebedeva M (1999) Metamorphism of marbles: role of feedbacks between reaction, fluid flow, pore pressure and creep, In: Jamtveit B; Meakin P (Ed) Growth, dissolution and pattern formation in geosystems, Netherlands: Kluwer, pp.367-380.
  • Bruce S; Yardley BWD; Banks DA; Boyce AJ; Munoz M; Courjault-Rade P; Tollon F (1999) Mineralising brines in the south west Massif Central, France, In: Stanley CJ (Ed) Mineral deposits: process to processing, A.A. Balkema, pp.29-32.
  • Mehrabi B; Yardley BWD; Cann JR (1999) Sediment-hosted disseminated gold mineralisation at Zarshuran, NW Iran, Mineralium Deposita, 34, pp.673-696.
  • Barnicoat AC; Yardley BWD; Henderson IHC; Fox NPC (1999) Detrital origin of hydrothermal Witwatersrand gold - a review (Frimmel, 1997) - Discussion and reply, Terra Nova, 10, pp.347-350.
  • Smith M; Yardley BWD (1999) Fluid evolution during metamorphism of the Otago Schist, New Zealand: (I) evidence from fluid inclusions, Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 17, pp.173-186.
  • Smith M; Yardley BWD (1999) Fluid evolution during metamorphism of the Otago Schist, New Zealand: (II) influence of detrital apatite on fluid salinity, Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 17, pp.187-193.
  • Svensen H; Jamtveit B; Yardley BWD; Engvik AE; Austrheim H; Broman C (1999) Lead and bromine enrichment in eclogite facies fluids: extreme fractionation during lower crustal hydration, Geology, 27, pp.467-470.
  • Balashov VN; Yardley BWD (1998) Modeling metamorphic fluid flow with reaction-compaction-permeability feedbacks, American Journal of Science, 298, pp.441-470.
  • Smith MP; Savary V; Yardley BWD; Valley JW; Royer JJ; Dubois M (1998) The evolution of the deep flow regime at Soultz-sous-Forets, Rhine graben, eastern France: evidence from a composite quartz vein, Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, pp.27223-27237.
  • Gleeson SA; Yardley BWD; Munz IA (1998) Downward infiltration of fluid into the high grade basement of South Norway I: Brines, Mineralogical Magazine, 62A, pp.527-528.
  • Lewis A; Komninou A; Yardley BWD; Palmer MR (1998) Rare earth element speciation in geothermal fluids from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 62, pp.657-663.
  • Munz IA; Yardley BWD; Gleeson SA (1998) Downward infiltration of fluid into the high grade basement of South Norway II: Composition and phase-behaviour of petroleum fluids at high temperature, Mineralogical Magazine, 62A, pp.1042-1043.
  • Barnicoat AC; Henderson IHC; Knipe RJ; Yardley BWD; Napier RW; Fox NPC; Kenyon AK; Muntingh DJ; Strydom D; Winkler KS; Lawrence SR; Cornford C (1997) Hydrothermal gold mineralization in the Witwatersrand basin, Nature, 386, pp.820-824.
  • Yardley BWD (1997) Probe of a plate interior, Nature, 389, pp.792-793.
  • Yardley BWD; Valley JW (1997) The petrologic case for a dry lower crust, Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, pp.12173-12185.
  • Komninou A; Yardley BWD (1997) Fluid-rock interactions in the Rhine Graben: a thermodynamic model of the hydrothermal alteration observed in deep drilling, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 61, pp.515-531.
  • Cliff RA; Yardley BWD; Bussy F (1996) U-Pb and Rb-Sr geochronology of magmatism and metamorphism in the Dalradian of Connemara, W. Ireland, Journal of the Geological Society, 153, pp.109-120.
  • Boiron MC; Cathelineau M; Banks DA; Yardley BWD; Noronha F; Miller MF (1996) P-T-X conditions of late Hercynian fluid penetration and the origin of granite-hosted gold quartz veins in northwestern Iberia: a multidisciplinary study of fluid inclusions and their chemistry, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 60, pp.43-57.
  • Yardley BWD (1996) The evolution of fluids through the metamorphic cycle, Fluid flow and transport in rocks, pp.99-121.
  • Jamtveit B; Yardley BWD (1996) Fluid flow and transport in rocks: an overview, Fluid flow and transport in rocks, pp.1-14.
  • Jamtveit B; Yardley BWD (1996) Fluid flow and transport in rocks, pp.319p.
  • Smith MP; Yardley BWD (1996) The boron isotopic composition of tourmaline as a guide to fluid processes in the southwestern England orefield: an ion microprobe study, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 60, pp.1415-1427.
  • Yardley BWD (1996) Earthquakes with golden linings, Nature, 382, pp.210-211.
  • Yardley BWD; Condliffe E; Lloyd GE; Harris DHM (1996) Polyphase garnets from western Ireland: two-phase intergrowths in the grossular-almandine series, European Journal of Mineralogy, 8, pp.383-392.
  • Smith M; Banks DA; Yardley BWD; Boyce AJ (1996) Fluid inclusion and stable isotope constraints on the genesis of the Cligga Head Sn-W deposit, S.W. England, European Journal of Mineralogy, 8, pp.961-974.