Dr Anja Schmidt
Academic Research Fellow
+44(0) 113 34
Email address: firstname.lastname@example.org
I have been an independent Academic Research Fellow (5-year tenure-track fellowship “Volcanic impacts: from vent to policy”) in the Institute for Climate and Atmospheric Science since February 2013. I combine expertise in atmospheric science and volcanology to advance the current understanding of volcanic impacts and hazards. In particular, I investigate the impact of volcanism on atmospheric chemistry, climate, air quality, human health, ecosystems and aviation using a wide range of atmospheric models and volcanological datasets. I also apply my atmospheric chemistry and aerosol modelling skills to non-volcanic topics in atmospheric and climate sciences. You can learn more about my research here.
Volcanic impacts and hazards
- aerosol-chemistry-climate interactions, aerosol microphysical processes, plume-rise modelling, Icelandic volcanic eruptions, continuously degassing volcanoes, mass extinctions, ecosystem impacts/soil acidification modelling, air quality and human health impacts.
Health and climate effects of emission controls/geoengineering
- shipping emissions, human health and climate trade-offs from emissions controls/manipulations.
- aerosol-chemistry-biosphere effects on deep time climates, volcanism and mass extinctions.
My PhD (2007-2011) work addressed the impact of tropospheric volcanic aerosol - whether derived from sporadically erupting or continuously degassing volcanoes, or large-scale Icelandic flood lava events - on global aerosol and the radiative forcing of climate. This was achieved by means of a global aerosol microphysics model (GLOMAP-mode). The work highlighted that explicitly simulating microphysical processes is important for determining the size, the number concentration and the lifetime of climate-relevant particles.
Awards and Prizes
2016 William Smith Fund (Geological Society of London, UK)
2016 Women of Achievement Award, University of Leeds
2015 IAVCEI George Walker Award for Volcanology
2010 3rd prize University of Leeds Postgraduate Researcher of the year competition
2008 1st prize Faculty of Environment Conference Poster Competition
- Co-I (Leeds PI) Effusive Icelandic Eruptions project (01/11/2013 – 01/05/2014, Cabinet Office, DfT)
- Co-I (Leeds PI) The source and longevity of sulphur in an Icelandic flood basalt eruption plume, (01/12/2014 – 30/11/2015; NE/M021130/1, NERC Urgency Grant)
- PI NCAR visiting researcher grants (since 2014)
- Co-I SMURPHS, Securing Multidisciplinary Understanding and Prediction of Hiatus and Surge Events (01/12/2015–30/11/2019, NERC)
- PI Characterising volcanic emissions from Kilauea volcano, Hawaii (2017-2018, Royal Society Research Grant)
- Co-I A-Cure, The Aerosol-Climate Uncertainty Reduction Project (01/10/2017-01/10/2020, NERC standard grant)
Current Research Group
- Lauren Marshall (primary), Eruption source parameter controls on the climatic impact of volcanic eruptions, NERC DTP Leeds, (Oct 2014-)
- Sarah Shallcross (co-supervisor), Combining composition-climate models with space-borne, ground-based and in situ measurements to estimate the climate forcing from major historical volcanic eruptions, ECMWF - CAMS43 funded, (Apr 2016-)
- Claire Cooper (co-supervisor, cross-departmental with Geography), Volcano-climate interactions in the Holocene, URL Leeds, (Oct 2016-)
- Rachel Whitty (co-supervisor), Tracking and measuring volcanic plumes using drones, NERC DTP Leeds CASE, (Oct 2017-)
- SOEE1280 The Atmosphere of Planet Earth (module leader)
- SOEE3171/SOEE5630M Volcanic Processes (contributor)
- SOEE3170 Frontiers in Environmental Sciences (contributor)
- SOEE3030 Environmental Research Project
- SOEE1442 Environmental Science / Meteorology and Climate Science Tutorials
Leadership and other activities
- Topical editor for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) (Oct 2016-)
- Elected Early Career Researcher (ECR) representative on the School’s Research Committee and on Faculty Research and Innovation Committee (Apr 2016 - Apr 2017)
- Member of the steering committee of the Centre of Excellence for Modelling Atmosphere and Climate (CEMAC) (Dec 2015 - Apr 2017)
- Member of the scientific steering committee for VolMIP (Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing) (2014-)
- Apprenticeship as IT Systems Engineer, 1999-2002 (Siemens AG, Germany).
- IT Systems Engineer, 2002 (Siemens AG, Leipzig, Germany).
- Diplom (MSc equivalent) in Geology and Palaeontology, 2002-2007, 1st class, (University of Leipzig).
- Erasmus exchange student, 2005-06 (University of Leeds).
- Ph.D, Oct 2007 to Mar 2011 (University of Leeds, “Modelling tropospheric volcanic aerosol: from aerosol microphysical processes to Earth system impacts”).
- Post-doctoral Researcher, 2011-13 (University of Leeds, “High resolution modelling of the formation of acidic aerosols in the dispersed volcanic plume of Eyjafjallajokull”).
- Academic Research Fellow, since 2013 (University of Leeds, 5-year tenure-track fellowship “Volcanic impacts: from vent to policy”).
- IVHHN - The International Volcanic Health Hazard Network
- IAVCEI - International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior
- AGU / EGU
Submitted / under review:
- Schmidt, A., Mills, M.J., Ghan, S., Gregory, J.M., Allan, R.P., Andrews, T., Conley, A., Forster, P.M., Gettelman, A., Solomon, S., and Toon, O.B., Current and near-future volcanic forcing of global climate change. (submitted)
- Swindles, G.T, Watson, E..J., Savov, I.P., Lawson, I.T., Schmidt, A., Hooper, A., Cooper, C.L, Connor, C.B., Gloor, M., and Carrivick, J.L., Climatic control on Icelandic volcanic activity during the Holocene. (under review)
- Ilyinskaya, E., Schmidt, A. , Mather, T.A., Pope, F.D., Witham, C., Baxter, P.J., Johansson, T., Barsotti, S., Pfeffer, M., Singh, A., Sanderson, P., Bergsson, B., McCormick Kilbride, B., Donovan, A., Peters, N.J., Oppenheimer, C., and Edmonds, M., Understanding the environmental impacts of large fissure eruptions: Aerosol and gas emissions from the 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption (Iceland). (under review)
- Cooper, C.L., Swindles, G.T., Savov, I.P., Schmidt, A. , and Bacon, K.L., Evaluating the relationship between climate change and volcanism. (submitted)
- Stone, K., Solomon, S., Kinnison, D., Pitts, M.C., Poole, L.R., Mills, M.J., Schmidt, A., Neely III, R.R., Ivy, D., Schwartz, M.J., Johnson, B.J., Tully, M.B., Klekociuk, A.R., Sasaki, T., and König-Langlo, G., Observing the impact of Calbuco volcanic aerosols on South Polar ozone depletion in 2015. (under review)
- Mills et al. (including Schmidt, A.), Radiative and chemical response to interactive stratospheric sulfate aerosols in fully coupled CESM1(WACCM). (submitted)
- Ivy DJ; Solomon S; Kinnison D; Mills MJ; Schmidt A; Neely RR (2017) The influence of the Calbuco eruption on the 2015 Antarctic ozone hole in a fully coupled chemistry-climate model, Geophysical Research Letters, 44, pp.2556-2561. doi: 10.1002/2016GL071925
- Glaze LS; Self S; Schmidt A; Hunter SJ (2017) Assessing eruption column height in ancient flood basalt eruptions, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 457, pp.263-270. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.07.043
- Solomon S; Kinnison D; Garcia RR; Bandoro J; Mills M; Wilka C; Neely RR; Schmidt A; Barnes J; Vernier J-P; Höpfner M (2016) Monsoon circulations and tropical heterogeneous chlorine chemistry in the stratosphere, Geophysical Research Letters, 43, pp.12624-12633. doi: 10.1002/2016GL071778
- Vignelles D; Roberts TJ; Carboni E; Ilyinskaya E; Pfeffer M; Dagsson Waldhauserova P; Schmidt A; Berthet G; Jegou F; Renard JB; Ólafsson H; Bergsson B; Yeo R; Fannar Reynisson N; Grainger RG; Galle B; Conde V; Arellano S; Lurton T; Coute B; Duverger V (2016) Balloon-borne measurement of the aerosol size distribution from an Icelandic flood basalt eruption, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 453, pp.252-259. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2016.08.027
- Pope RJ; Butt EW; Chipperfield MP; Doherty RM; Fenech S; Schmidt A; Arnold SR; Savage NH (2016) The impact of synoptic weather on UK surface ozone and implications for premature mortality, Environmental Research Letters, 11, . doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/11/12/124004
- Zanchettin D; Khodri M; Timmreck C; Toohey M; Schmidt A; Gerber EP; Hegerl G; Robock A; Pausata FSR; Ball WT; Bauer SE; Bekki S; Dhomse SS; Le Grande AN; Mann GW; Marshall L; Mills M; Marchand M; Niemeier U; Poulain V; Rozanov E; Rubino A; Stenke A; Tsigaridis K; Tummon F (2016) The Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing (VolMIP): Experimental design and forcing input data for CMIP6, Geoscientific Model Development, 9, pp.2701-2719. doi: 10.5194/gmd-9-2701-2016
- Solomon S; Ivy DJ; Kinnison D; Mills MJ; Neely RR; Schmidt A (2016) Emergence of healing in the Antarctic ozone layer, Science, 353, pp.269-274. doi: 10.1126/science.aae0061
- Mills MJ; Schmidt A; Easter R; Solomon S; Kinnison DE; Ghan SJ; Neely RR; Marsh DR; Conley A; Bardeen CG; Gettelman A (2016) Global volcanic aerosol properties derived from emissions, 1990-2014, using CESM1(WACCM), Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 121, pp.2332-2348. doi: 10.1002/2015JD024290
- Schmidt A; Skeffington RA; Thordarson T; Self S; Forster PM; Rap A; Ridgwell A; Fowler D; Wilson M; Mann GW; Wignall PB; Carslaw KS (2016) Selective environmental stress from sulphur emitted by continental flood basalt eruptions, Nature Geoscience, 9, pp.77-82. doi: 10.1038/ngeo2588
- Butt EW; Rap A; Schmidt A; Scott CE; Pringle KJ; Reddington CL; Richards NAD; Woodhouse MT; Ramirez-Villegas J; Yang H; Vakkari V; Stone EA; Rupakheti M; Praveen PS; Van Zyl PG; Beukes JP; Josipovic M; Mitchell EJS; Sallu SM; Forster PM; Spracklen DV (2016) The impact of residential combustion emissions on atmospheric aerosol, human health, and climate, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16, . doi: 10.5194/acp-16-873-2016
- Schmidt A; Leadbetter S; Theys N; Carboni E; Witham CS; Stevenson JA; Birch CE; Thordarson T; Turnock S; Barsotti S; Delaney L; Feng W; Grainger RG; Hort MC; Hoskuldsson A; Ialongo I; Ilyinskaya E; Johannsson T; Kenny P; Mather TA; Richards NAD; Shepherd J (2015) Satellite detection, long-range transport, and air quality impacts of volcanic sulfur dioxide from the 2014-2015 flood lava eruption at Bárðarbunga (Iceland), Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 120, pp.9739-9757. doi: 10.1002/2015JD023638
- Schmidt A (2015) Volcanic Gas and Aerosol Hazards from a Future Laki-Type Eruption in Iceland, Volcanic Hazards, Risks, and Disasters, pp.377-397. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-396453-3.00015-0
- Schmidt A; Robock A (2015) Volcanism, the atmosphere, and climate through time, In: Schmidt A; Fristad K; Elkins-Tanton LT (Ed) Volcanism and Global Environmental Change, Cambridge University Press.
- Schmidt A; Elkins-Tanton LT (2015) Volcanism and global environmental change, pp.1-324. doi: 10.1007/9781107415683
- Gettelman A; Schmidt A; Kristjánsson JE (2015) Icelandic volcanic emissions and climate, Nature Geoscience, 8, pp.243. doi: 10.1038/ngeo2376
- Self S; Glaze LS; Schmidt A; Mather TA (2015) Volatile release from flood basalt eruptions: Understanding the potential environmental effects, Volcanism and Global Environmental Change, pp.164-174. doi: 10.1007/9781107415683.012
- Ridley DA; Solomon S; Barnes JE; Burlakov VD; Deshler T; Dolgii SI; Herber AB; Nagai T; Neely RR; Nevzorov AV; Ritter C; Sakai T; Santer BD; Sato M; Schmidt A; Uchino O; Vernier JP (2014) Total volcanic stratospheric aerosol optical depths and implications for global climate change, Geophysical Research Letters, 41, pp.7763-7769. doi: 10.1002/2014GL061541
- Schmidt A; Witham CS; Theys N; Richards NAD; Thordarson T; Szpek K; Feng W; Hort MC; Woolley AM; Jones AR; Redington AL; Johnson BT; Hayward CL; Carslaw KS (2014) Assessing hazards to aviation from sulfur dioxide emitted by explosive icelandic eruptions, Journal of Geophysical Research, 119, pp.14-196. doi: 10.1002/2014JD022070
- Self S; Schmidt A; Mather TA (2014) Emplacement characteristics, time scales, and volcanic gas release rates of continental flood basalt eruptions on Earth, Geological Society of America Special Papers, 505, pp.319-337. doi: 10.1130/2014.2505(16)
- Schmidt A; Thordarson T; Oman LD; Robock A; Self S (2014) Reply to comment by Cole-Dai et al. on 'Climatic impact of the long-lasting Laki eruption: Inapplicability of mass-independent sulfur isotope composition measurements', Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 119, pp.6636-6637. doi: 10.1002/2013JD021440
- Partanen AI; Laakso A; Schmidt A; Kokkola H; Kuokkanen T; Pietikäinen J-P; Kerminen V-M; Lehtinen KEJ; Laakso L; Korhonen H (2013) Climate and air quality trade-offs in altering ship fuel sulfur content, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13, pp.12059-12071. doi: 10.5194/acp-13-12059-2013
- Loughlin SC; Aspinall WP; Vye‐Brown C; Baxter PJ; Braban CF; Hort M; Schmidt A; Thordarson T; Witham C (2013) Large‐magnitude fissure eruptions in Iceland: source characterisation., .
- Browse J; Carslaw KS; Schmidt A; Corbett JJ (2013) Impact of future Arctic shipping on high-latitude black carbon deposition, Geophysical Research Letters, 40, pp.4459-4463. doi: 10.1002/grl.50876
- Rap A; Scott CE; Spracklen DV; Bellouin N; Forster PM; Carslaw KS; Schmidt A; Mann G (2013) Natural aerosol direct and indirect radiative effects, Geophysical Research Letters, 40, pp.3297-3301. doi: 10.1002/grl.50441
- Schmidt A (2013) Modelling Tropospheric Volcanic Aerosol: From Aerosol Microphysical Processes to Earth System Impacts, Springer Theses, pp.1-145.
- Mann GW; Carslaw KS; Ridley DA; Spracklen DV; Pringle KJ; Merikanto J; Korhonen H; Schwarz JP; Lee LA; Manktelow PT; Woodhouse MT; Schmidt A; Breider TJ; Emmerson KM; Reddington CL; Chipperfield MP; Pickering SJ (2012) Intercomparison of modal and sectional aerosol microphysics representations within the same 3-D global chemical transport model, ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, 12, pp.4449-4476. doi: 10.5194/acp-12-4449-2012
- Schmidt A; Carslaw KS; Mann GW; Rap A; Pringle KJ; Spracklen DV; Wilson M; Forster PM (2012) Importance of tropospheric volcanic aerosol for indirect radiative forcing of climate, ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, 12, pp.7321-7339. doi: 10.5194/acp-12-7321-2012
- Schmidt A; Thordarson T; Oman LD; Robock A; Self S (2012) Climatic impact of the long-lasting 1783 Laki eruption: Inapplicability of mass-independent sulfur isotopic composition measurements, Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 117, . doi: 10.1029/2012JD018414
- Schmidt A; Ostro B; Carslaw KS; Wilson M; Thordarson T; Mann GW; Simmons AJ (2011) Excess mortality in Europe following a future Laki-style Icelandic eruption, P NATL ACAD SCI USA, 108, pp.15710-15715. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1108569108
- Schmidt A; Carslaw KS; Mann GW; Wilson M; Breider TJ; Pickering SJ; Thordarson T (2010) The impact of the 1783-1784 AD Laki eruption on global aerosol formation processes and cloud condensation nuclei, ATMOS CHEM PHYS, 10, pp.6025-6041. doi: 10.5194/acp-10-6025-2010
- Chiodini G; Caliro S; Cardellini C; Avino R; Granieri D; Schmidt A (2008) Carbon isotopic composition of soil CO2 efflux, a powerful method to discriminate different sources feeding soil CO2 degassing in volcanic-hydrothermal areas, EARTH PLANET SC LETT, 274, pp.372-379. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2008.07.051
- Watson E; Swindles G; Savov IP; Lawson I; Carrivick J; Hooper A; Schmidt A (Submitted) Climatic control on Icelandic volcanism during the Holocene, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, .