The CO2 React network offers training to 13 ESRs and 1 ER. To learn more about the individual research projects, , please see below. Please note all positions have now been filled. No further applications will be accepted.

Work Package 1: Rates of CO2-H2O-mineral reactions

ESR 1: Kinetics of calcite and magnesite nucleation and growth: University of Leeds

ESR1 will investigate nucleation and growth of the Ca/Mg carbonates in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems as a function of temperature, composition and salinity. Particle size and morphology will be examined, on line, with laboratory and synchrotron radiation techniques at Uni Leeds and atomic force microscopy and atomic simulation at Uni Copenhagen. Results will be combined with precipitation rates from the literature to generate a complete description of carbonate mineral formation rates as a function of saturation (with CNRS and Amphos 21).

Contact Person: Prof. Liane G. Benning (L.G.Benning@leeds.ac.uk)

ESR 2: Quantifying the effect of trace elements on carbonate dissolution and growth through atomic simulations: University of Copenhagen

ESR2 combines a re-evaluation of literature values with growth rate data for calcite in the presence of SO4 2-, Na+ and K+ ions. Growth rates will be measured in macroscopic and atomic scale experiments (in situ AFM) at Uni Copenhagen as a function of supersaturation and electrolyte composition. The effect of trace components will be monitored experimentally, verified with computational methods and rate equations will be compared with field observations of Uni Iceland.

Contact person: Prof. Susan Stipp (stipp@nano.ku.dk)

ESR 3: Stability and formation kinetics of mixed metal carbonates: University of Oviedo

ESR 3 will determine the formation rates and thermodynamics of mixed and solid solution carbonate phases in macroscopic reactors at Uni Oviedo and model results of Uni Iceland and Amphos 21.

Contact person: Prof. Manolo Prieto (mprieto@geol.uniovi.es)

ESR 4: Coupled silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation: WWU Münster

ESR4 will investigate the direct coupling of silicate mineral dissolution with carbonate mineral precipitation (e.g., dissolving Mg-Fe silicates in CO2-rich rich-fluids) and measuring the carbonation rates as a function of time. These results will all be used to define the mechanism of the coupled process and assess the reliability of existing reactive transport computer codes by Lafarge.

Contact person: Prof. Andrew Putnis (putnis@uni-muenster.de)

ESR 5: Rates of mineral transformations in H2O saturated gas: CNRS Toulouse

ESR5 will measure the carbonation rates in water saturated CO2 and CO2-trace gas mixtures using novel transparent walled high pressure reactors at CNRS and quantifying the gas phase evolution in situ with Raman and FTIR. Results will be compared with field observations at RE and UI.

Contact person: Clare Desplats (clare.desplats@gmail.com)

Work Package 2: Carbon storage security

ESR 6: Cap Rock Integrity 1: Silicate minerals: University of Copenhagen

ESR6 will investigate clay dissolution/re-precipitation under high pressure CO2, and under reservoir conditions of composition, ionic strength, temperature and pressure at KU; product phases will be characterized by Uni Leeds and data will be incorporated into reactive transport codes and be used to assess the risk of cap rock failure of potential CO2 storage sites by Amphos 21.

Contact person: Prof. Susan Stipp (stipp@nano.ku.dk)

ESR 7: Cap Rock Integrity 2: Carbonate, sulphide, and chloride minerals: University of Leeds

Similar efforts to ESR 6 will be made by ESR7 on more reactive carbonates, halites and sulfides at Uni Leeds. Rock cores from pilot sites will be reacted with CO2-rich H2O to determine where cap rock dissolution occurs, taking account of X-ray tomography analysis. New pore scale modeling codes will be used to analyze X-ray micro and nano tomography (XMT and XNT) and synchrotron-based μ-spectroscopy (μ-XRF and μ-XAS) to quantify the morphology and topology of samples during experiments at UL. The study will also attempt to develop models describing changes in the petrophysical parameters (e.g. electrical resistivity, permeability, elastic moduli, NMR relaxation) resulting from CO2 injection with PB.

Contact person: Prof. Liane G. Benning (l.g.benning@leeds.ac.uk)

ESR 8: Does CO2 injection cause toxic metal plumes?: University of Iceland

The potential for CO2-rich fluid-mineral interaction to provoke toxic metal plume development will be assessed by ESR8 (hosted by Uni Iceland) through reactions of potential reservoir rocks (e.g., sandstone, limestone, basalt and ultramafics) with CO2-rich fluids to assess the risk of toxic metal mobility. Emphasis will be placed on identifying the factors controlling heavy metal release and mobility and potential mineral sequestration solutions. Concurrent observations on active injection sites performed in collaboration with Amphos 21 and Reykjavik Energy will assess the extent of potential risks.

Contact person: Prof. Sigurdur Gislason (sigrg@raunvis.hi.is)

ESR 9: Well material reactivity and security: West Systems Italy

ERS9’s project will assess the security risks associated with corrosion of well materials through collaboration between WEST and CNRS. Selected well materials will be reacted with potential CO2-rich gas mixtures to assess the degree to which trace gases can be coinjected into the subsurface, thus dropping the cost of industrial gas separation. Samples will be characterised at Uni Leeds and Uni Copenhagen during secondments and visits. ESR9 will also work with the WP3 team (below), applying reactive transport modelling codes to assess the affect of trace gases on reservoir security.

Contact person: Dr. Luigi Marini (luigimarini@rocketmail.com)

Work package 3: Improved Reactive Transport models

ER1: Incorporating improved thermodynamics and kinetics into reactive transport models: Lafarge

Reactive transport models are our most useful tools for predicting the fate of CO2 in the subsurface, because information about subsurface processes is typically difficult to obtain because of limited sampling wells. Current models are insufficient because of missing thermodynamic and kinetic data. To address these challenges, ER1 – who will be hosted by our industrial partner Lafarge, will revaluate existing thermodynamic data for reactions expected in the subsurface as well as those useful for limiting CO2 emissions from cement production with Lafarge. S(he) will work together with CNRS and Amphos 21 to upgrade computer codes describing the kinetics of fluid-mineral interaction, taking advantage of results obtained from Work Package 1.

Contact person: Dr. Alexander Pisch (Alexander.Pisch@pole-technologique.lafarge.com)

ESR 10: Testing reactive transport models using experiments and simulations: CNRS Toulouse

ESR10 will react selected reservoir rocks provided by Reykjavik Energy, Maersk Oil and Gas and Petrobras in fluid flow core reactors, to determine the temporal and spatial evolution of reactions. Phase distributions will be quantified again using high resolution X-ray tomography. ESR10 will use improved reactive transport models upgraded by ER1 in an attempt to validate the models.

Contact person: Clare Desplats (clare.desplats@gmail.com)

ESR 11: Predicting the long-term security of CO2 subsurface injections: Amphos 21

The models created by ER 1 will also be applied by ESR 11, working closely with Amphos 21 and WEST, to predict the long term fate and consequences in a number of CO2 target sequestration sites including the CARB-FIX injection site run by RE and the La Compostella site, near Uni Oviedo in Spain.

Contact person: Fidel Grandia (fidel.grandia@amphos21.com)

Work package 4: Field and industrial applications

ESR 12 : The fate and consequences of CO2-fluid - basalt interactions: Reykjavik Energy

ESR12 will focus on chemical evolution during CO2 injection into basaltic rocks by RE using a mixture of water and steam harnessed from the geothermal power plant and injected to 400-800 m, where it will react with metals released from basalt to form carbonate minerals. This project entails regular fluid sampling from monitoring wells, measurements of the temporal evolution of the fluid chemistry during injection, and modelling the fluid-basalt interaction in collaboration with CNRS and UI. Attention will be paid to chemical tracers to monitor the carbonation reaction progress.

Contact person: Dr. Edda Sif Aradottir (Edda.Sif.Aradottir@or.is)

ESR 13: Consequences of injecting CO2-rich fluid into carbonate rocks with respect to injectivity and mineralogy near the wellbore: Maersk Oil and Gas

Efforts will be made with carbonate core plug rock samples by ESR13 and Maersk Oil and Gas with experiments in partnership with Uni Copenhagen. Rates of rock alteration and the identity of the secondary phases will be determined using nanoscale techniques, AFM and XMT. Observations will be compared to those obtained from the improved geochemical modelling tools generated in Work Package 3 to improve the predictive algorithms and with field observations to validate reaction mechanisms.

Contact person: Dr. Finn Engstrom (Finn.Engstrom@maerskoil.com)

For further reading: